How is hepatitis D transmitted
All persons infected with hepatitis B (patients and carriers) are susceptible to the hepatitis D virus. In addition, infection can occur simultaneously with two viruses, as a rule, this is more often the case.
The first mode of transmission is called hemocontact, that is, through the blood. The peculiarity of the pathogen is that a very small dose of the virus is needed for infection. It is enough that only a tenth of a drop of the patient's blood gets to the damaged skin or mucous membranes. Infection can occur when using blood-contaminated medical instruments, piercing needles, tattoo. People who take intravenous drugs have a very high chance of infection with repeated use of syringes. Previously, there were cases of infection with viral hepatitis during blood transfusion, but now all donor blood is carefully checked, so the risk of infection is minimal.
The household transmission pathway is characteristic of this virus.Due to the low infectious dose and the highest resistance of the pathogen in the environment, it is enough to use with the patient some manicure accessories, machines, razors, brushes, hairbrushes, towels, bedding, etc., with the patient. Even if the damaged skin comes into contact (a slight scratch or scuff is enough) with an imperceptible dried speck of the patient's blood, the probability of infection is very high. It is believed that if the family has a patient with viral hepatitis B and D, then within 5 years all family members will also be necessarily infected.
Sexual infection with delta hepatitis also exists. The virus is contained in semen, vaginal secretions. Any unprotected sex with a patient or a virus carrier can lead to infection.
The intrauterine transmission of the virus from mother to child also exists. Usually, the child becomes infected with hepatitis during childbirth due to contact with the mother’s blood. The probability of infection is from 20 to 90%, depending on the degree of activity of the viral process.
In the modern world, so-called bioterrorism, the conscious infection of healthy people, is acquiring great importance.Hepatitis B and D viruses are completely capable of persisting in the environment for a long time, so even an imperceptible injection of a needle contaminated with blood in a public transport or elevator car can lead to infection. In Russia there is a criminal liability for such acts.
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