How pea develops from seed

In pea (bean) fruits, several seeds ripen, their number is different each time. Pea is a dicotyledonous plant and differs from monocots in that it has two cotyledons in the germ of its seed. Endosperm does not contain ripe pea seeds, all nutrients are contained in cotyledons. The germination and development of live seeds begins with their swelling, an increase in volume. The amount of water absorbed by plants varies greatly: legumes can absorb more than 100% of water, oilseeds - only 35-40%, and cereals 50-70%. The volume of legumes increases greatly when swelling. Indicative experience when placed in a bottle of peas, pour water and cork tightly cork. After a few hours the bottle can burst under the pressure of the seeds.
Dead seeds are also subject to swelling, but subsequently do not germinate, and rot. The first of the necessary conditions for germination is the presence of water or moisture in the soil.Under the action of moisture on live seeds, complex chemical reactions are initiated and enzymes begin their action, resulting in a cellular turgor.
The second condition for the seed to germinate is the appropriate temperature. For each plant there are minimum, maximum and optimum temperatures for seed germination. Peas and most legumes germinate at temperatures from 1 to 5 degrees above zero. Best of all, the seed will develop at a temperature of from 20 to 30 degrees, and starting from 37, the temperature becomes fatal for them. The third prerequisite is the presence of oxygen in the air. In the absence of oxygen, the seeds will not germinate, and the smaller its content, the worse their development will be.
Usually the seeds germinate in the dark, but there are also plants whose seeds need light for germination. Solid seeds with a dense skin for successful germination need to damage the shell, for example, grinding them with sand. This mechanical damage is called scarification. Plants for the middle band for successful germination requires prior exposure to cold.Chemicals that increase germination are also popular. After the pea is swollen, the seed coat is broken and the root of the embryo comes out. Next comes the hypocotyl, the semi-nuclear knee, which carries the cotyledons. Small cotyledons are brought to the surface of the soil, and large ones remain in it. Between the two cotyledons, separating them, the bud begins to develop with the germ of the stem and leaves.

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