Smoking has many negative effects due to the presence in cigarettes, in addition to nicotine, more than 300 substances. It is these substances, and not nicotine, that cause smoking-related forms of cancer. However, the effect of nicotine on the circulatory system promotes the formation of fatty plaques in the vessels, which lead to heart disease and stroke. The inhalation of nicotine in tobacco smoke irritates the bronchial passages in the lungs, causing shortness of breath, bronchitis, emphysema (destruction of the alveoli, bubbles in the lungs through which oxygen enters the circulatory system). Nicotine along with carcinogens inhaled when smoking cigarettes can reduce the amount and quality of sperm in a man. A smoking man produces less and less sperm, and the number of damaged sperm is increasing. This may affect fertility and increase the likelihood of conceiving a child with congenital anomalies.
Tobacco smoke contains at least 300 different chemical compounds. They enter the lungs in the form of gases or solid particles.The solids condense to form a thick brown gum. (When inhaling smoke from 10,000 cigarettes, for example, when smoking for 2 years, 15 cigarettes per day accumulate about 160 grams of this tar.) The tar lines the passages along which the smoke moves and collects in the lungs. The components of tobacco smoke are divided into five categories.
Carcinogenic substances that promote cancer. At least 15 carcinogens are present in tobacco smoke, including some carbohydrates, benzpyrene and, possibly, radioactive isotopes of polonium.
Kokantserogen, or cancer stimulants, by themselves do not cause cancer, but accelerate the effects of carcinogens. These include phenols and fatty acids.
Annoying substances stimulate bronchial passages, forcing them to increase the production of mucus, but disrupting the process of removing mucus from the lungs. Many of them also belong to carcinogens.
Gases are present in dangerous tobacco smoke. The level of carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide) is 400 times higher than the rate recognized as safe in industry, and hydrocyanic acid exceeds the safe rate by 160 times.
Nicotine - one cigarette contains from 0.5 to 2 mg of nicotine, depending on the way tobacco is processed. How much nicotine is absorbed in this depends on the method of smoking.If inhaled, up to 90% can be absorbed, and when not inhaled, about 10%.
Filter cigarettes with low tar content. 90% of cigarettes currently sold are equipped with a filter. The filter removes many harmful components from cigarette smoke. Cigarettes with low tar and nicotine content and a good filter reduce the risk of death by about 16%. However, some filter cigarettes pass into the lungs most of the poisonous carbon monoxide.
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