What are the foundations for the house
The quality of the foundation is connected with the solidity and inviolability of the building. Depending on the form and method of support on the ground foundations are: slab, pile, tape and columnar. Strip foundations are perhaps the most versatile and practical. Because of this, they are popular in construction. Under light one-or two-storey buildings made of wood, gas-blocks and other non-heavy materials, a shallow support is arranged. The basis for it can be brick and concrete, rarely a rubble stone, but it is preferable to arrange a reinforced concrete monolithic base, putting a reinforcement with a diameter of at least 12 cm in the sole.
Installation begins with digging a trench around the perimeter of the building - provide width and depth calculations to specialists. The minimum depth for laying under partitions is 0.5 m, for external walls - 0.7 meters. Installing the foundation is a hard but uncomplicated job. The process of obtaining monolith is simple - make the formwork and pour concrete mix into it. When mounting in several stages, the interval between each layer should be no more than 2 days.The prefabricated foundation consists of concrete blocks laid on the mortar. I do it in buildings with an easy configuration.
Column supports speak for themselves, the main structural elements are pillars of brick or blocks of concrete. They are laid in buildings where it is not planned to equip the basement. This type of base is cheap, convenient, but not suitable for all soils. In addition, their service life is short. The pillars are located under the outer corners and at the intersection of the walls, and between them mount the base.
On weak mobile soils, a suitable option would be a lattice or monolithic reinforced concrete slab for the entire area of the structure - slab foundation. The need for a particularly strong foundation arises in multi-storey construction on clay-sandy soil.
A pile foundation is a labor-consuming, expensive structure consisting of individual concrete, steel, reinforced concrete or wooden piles on which a concrete slab or beams are laid. They are used for weak soils, when strong soil lies at a considerable depth. Installation is carried out in two ways: piles are driven into the soil as a finished product or made in drilled holes. Due to the high cost and complexity in private construction is rarely used.
When choosing a foundation for a building, consider some factors: the type of soil in the building site, the thickness of the freezing layer, the architectural features of the object, the presence of groundwater.
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